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The Relationship between GOD, JESUS CHRIST and MAN

8. Words related to tupos

[8A] G5179 - τύπος (tupos)

A. Thayer Definition

       1) the mark of a stroke or blow, print

       2) a figure formed by a blow or impression

              2a) of a figure or image

              2b) of the image of the gods

       3) form

3a) the teaching which embodies the sum and substance of religion and represents it to the mind, manner of writing, the contents and form of a letter

       4) an example

              4a) in the technical sense, the pattern in conformity to which a thing must be made

              4b) in an ethical sense, a dissuasive example, a pattern of warning

                     4b1) of ruinous events which serve as admonitions or warnings to others

              4c) an example to be imitated

                     4c1) of men worthy of imitation

              4d) in a doctrinal sense

                     4d1) of a type, i.e. a person or thing prefiguring a future (Messianic) person or thing


Note: for 1 Corinthians 10:11 (most mss)

Instead of τύπος (tupos), NAS has G5179a, τυπικω ς (tupikōs), with the definition "typically"

B. Verses with this word


John 20:25; Acts 7:43-44; 23:25; Romans 5:14; 6:17; 1 Corinthians 10:6, 11; Philippians 3:17; 1 Thessalonians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:12; Titus 2:7; Hebrews 8:5; 1 Peter 5:3

C. Outline


       1.    A "picture" of a nail (its imprint on one's hand).

              a.    John 20:25 - Thomas: "I must see the nail imprints on his (Jesus') hands... (before I believe what you have said)."


       2.    A "representation" of a letter's content (probably translated from Latin to Greek).

              a.    Acts 23:25 - The commander wrote a letter in this manner... [It may have been originally written in Latin, and then later translated into Greek. This would have probably been done by Luke, the human author of the book of Acts, when it was going to be included in the Scriptures.]


       3.    A "typical example" of Paul's teaching (focusing on its content).

              a.    Romans 6:17 - You were slaves to sin, but now have obeyed (from the heart) the form of teaching that was given you (by way of Paul)... (You have become free from sin and are now "slaves" to righteousness.)


       4.    Old Testament people who were "pictures" of various truths.

              a.    Israel (the nation).

                     i.     1 Corinthians 10:6 - What happened to Israel (in the desert) is an example (a warning) for us to pay attention to.

                     ii.    1 Corinthians 10 - These things (that happened to them) are examples, written down to warn us.

              b.    Adam - a "picture" of Christ.

                     i.     Romans 5:14 - Adam - a picture of the One to come (Christ). [There are striking parallels between the two. Example: The actions of each had an impact on others who followed: Adam ... on Adam's offspring; Christ ... on those who have become Christ's "offspring."]


       5.    "Patterns" and "Symbols" - things that represent spiritual realities (or counterfeit "realities") in worship.

              a.    An example of the genuine: The "realities" that the Old Testament tabernacle represented.

                     i.     Acts 7:44 - The tabernacle was made according to the pattern God gave Moses.

                     ii.    Hebrews 8:5 - The tabernacle - a copy and shadow of heavenly things, based on a pattern shown to Moses.

              b.    An example of the counterfeit: The things that "represented" false gods.

                     i.     Acts 7:43 - Israel worshiped the images / figures / representations of (various false gods).


       6.    Following the "examples" of people (or being the "example" itself).

              a.    The leaders.

                     i.     1 Peter 5:3 - Set an example to the people, rather than acting like "lords" over them.

                     ii.    Titus 2:7 - Set an example by doing what is good. (The immediate focus may be on Titus being an example for the young men.)

                     iii.  1 Timothy 4:12 - To Timothy: Set an example to the believers (several areas of life mentioned in the context).

                     iv.   2 Thessalonians 3:9 - We (Paul, etc.) made ourselves a model for you to follow. (They were willing to work for their provisions, and lived-out the rule, "If a person is unwilling to work, don't feed him.")

              b.    The people.

                     i.     Philippians 3:17 - "Imitate" Paul, and follow those who live according to the pattern given by Paul.

                     ii.    1 Thessalonians 1:7 - (Being an example is encouraged.) You "imitated" us (v. 6) and became an example to all the believers...

D. Summary


Various people, objects and events in the Old Testament were pictures or illustrations of various truths - whether in the form of "object lessons" for us to learn from, or illustrating some truth about Christ and what he did. Even New Testament illustrations (or people's lives) can be examples to teach us.


There are a number if interesting parallels and contrasts between Adam and Christ (who is called the "second Adam"). See Romans 5 for some examples. (1 Corinthians 15 also points out some parallels and contrasts.)


Dennis Hinks © 1983, 2006



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