These definitions are based on "Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament." In some instances, in which there are multiple definitions, some of the definitions may have not been used in the New Testament. (The definitions include the ways other Greek writers used the words.)
sophroneo - to be of sound mind, i.e. 1) to be in one's right mind; 2) to exercise self control, i.e. a) to put a moderate estimate upon one's self, to think of one's self soberly, b) to curb one's passions
sophronizo - to restore one to his senses; to moderate, control, curb, discipline; to hold one to his duty; to admonish, to exhort earnestly
sophronismos - 1) an admonishing or calling to soundness of mind, to moderation and self-control; 2) self-control, moderation
sophronos - with sound mind, soberly, temperately, discreetly
sophrosune - 1) soundness of mind; 2) self-control, sobriety
sophron - 1) of a sound mind, sane, in one's senses; 2) curbing one's desires and impulses, self-controlled, temperate
nephalios - sober, temperate; abstaining from wine, either entirely or at least from its immoderate use.
- Note about this word: Since this word is normally translated "sober" or "temperate," our immediate inclination may be to interpret is as restricting the use of wine, etc. However, the metaphoric use of the word (sober-minded) is probably intended, for in each place this word occurs, different words that specifically focus on the "wine issue" can be found - both in the immediate and nearby contexts.
- The following list shows: 1) the verse in which the word "sober" (nephalios) occurs, and 2) verses where in the nearby context which specifically address the "wine issue":
1 Timothy 3:2 & 1 Timothy 3:11 - In v. 3, the overseer (who is told to be "temperate" in v. 2) is told to not be "given over" (addicted) to wine. In v. 8, deacons are told to not "focus their attention" on wine. In contrast with these two verses, Timothy is encouraged to use some wine, in 5:23 (of course, NOT in a manner that contradicts the previous verses!).
- Titus 2:2 - In v. 3, older women are told that they should not be "enslaved" by wine. Verse 1:7 reminds overseers that they are not to be "given over" (addicted) to wine.
nepho - to be calm and collected in spirit; to be temperate, dispassionate, circumspect
ananepho - to return to soberness
eknepho - 1) to return to one's self from drunkenness, become sober; 2) (metaph.) to return to soberness of mind
akrasia - lack of self-control, incontinence, intemperance
akrates - without self-control, intemperate
egkrateia - self-control (the virtue of one who masters his desires and passions, especially his sensual appetites)
egkrateuomai - to be self-controlled, continent; to exhibit self-government, conduct one's self temperately
egkrates - 1) strong, robust; 2) having power over, possessed of (a thing); 3) mastering, controlling, curbing, restraining, controlling one's self, temperate, continent
Dennis Hinks © 1996
Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament is public domain.